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In Vicorian era, with the technological developments and new tendencies on documentation has given rise to photographic image processing; chronophotography is one of the new technological and aesthetic processes. Chronophotography led to examine the different phases of a  movement. It is a kind of process to fragmentalize / dismantlize the whole; which proceeds on a continual basis.  In the end of chronotographic process, the movement is defined as photographic stills of one after another rather than perception of objects as  sum of  movement. Technically as pre-runner; predecessor of cinema,capturing separate parts on a continual time, led to study movement in an organization and rational flux. The studies are gathered through scientific examinations of human and animal acts; in psychosomatic cases like hysteria.  The taxonomic study of movement in psychological field canalize the researches -like Etienne Jules Marey and Albert Nolde  with Jean Martin Charcot- to juxtapose concepts like anatomic movements and psychology together.

Jules Marey developed chronotographic gun, thus utilizing documentation of movements on a single frame.

An intersting motion-examination by Etienne Jules-Marey(actually he had an almost encyclopedic documentation on the anatomic movements of animals)

Documentation of movement in scientific and medical fields, led the researchers to expand diagnostic researches. So one can easily argue that chronophotography had a logical predecessor of body scanning systems like MRI; but with one major difference. While chronophotography is built on the premise of creating stills of a moving thing; different phases of one movement;  MRI and other body scanning systems are based on a moving mechanism on a still object/ human. MRI captures by moving ans scanning a stable part of the body to show all possible angles of a certain fixed part.  So Chronotography is created through variablity and continuity of time with its fixed mechanisms; in resemblence with tripod; while MRI is a steady cam on a fixed and stable space. One- chronophotography acquires fixation of time, while MRI scan obliges the spatial stabilization. Somehow visual premises in taxonomy, organization, definition , lead  conceptual comparisons with each other.

Jean- Martin’s hysteria chronophotography taken by Albert Nolde. Documentation of hysteria attack.



As a Swiss medical drug brand, Geigy, often followed bold-sans serif  faces which had a wide – use on other Swiss publicities (that one can identify the Swiss ‘bold’  from miles away). Using bold- ‘neutral’ fonts that are the derivations of sans serif (like Akzidenz Grotesk, or Helvetica) had been a dominant fashion in design of Swiss advertising, it had not a wide-spread use of this style among other countries. The risk has ended with a full success; the dominant Swiss style on the brand was fully appreciated. This appreciation, for me, stemmed from the conative signs of the Style’s consistent bold typograhic choices that evokes a sense of reliability and stability (that implies a ‘lively’ presence on the ground rather than inconsistent and floathing types with their lightness and orniments) ; use of negative spaces refers to a hygiene, – finally recued from that ‘dirty’ viruses and diseases-.


Fred Toller, became a prominent figure on designing advertisements, publications of Geigy drugs. His style differs from other ‘Geigys’ in terms of his characteristic juxtaposition of large and small types, his X-Ray like illustrations, that are bold again.  That cartoonized boldness of subjects, smoothens the scary distance of illness, comes through with  a smooth and warm implications of the healing drug. (Somehow his illustrations corresponds with the cut-outs of Saul Bass, in ‘One Armed Man’ and in ‘Anatomy of a Murder)

Studying under Emil Ruder and Armin Hofmann,  Karl Gerstner is one of the most influencal contributes,r on remarkable designs within Geigy’s corporate idenity. His settlements are based on more complex grids (but his innovation of grid system is another huge topic) and unjustified than the other Swiss style.

Music visualization has been considered in the (post)computer age as synchronized (and real time) , ‘flushing’ images according to music’s frequency. For more over decades it was usually based on visualizer softwares like media player in -very-common use and spread to interactive artistic experiences. Being a quite popular phenomenon, interactivity has its roots in the experimental film area short after Dada’s ‘harsh’ performances. The interactivity has broken down the well established, ‘aural’ distance of work with peripheral elements; thus create a kind of temporal communication.  Anyway, from 1743, the initial try-outs, constructed for music visualization, were experimented; the model was called ‘color organ’ : It is designed a moving  transparent colored tapes; seven colors for seven notes on each. And then, projection of colored light to a screen via performing music with organ or some ‘singing lambs’ which produce image and sound synchronically through combustion of gas, in late 19th century.

Composer, Weissheimer  playing a Pyrophone in the late 19th century.

“Film artist Mary-Ellen Bute combines science and art to create seeing sound.

Besides, sound and image engagement has influentially held in experimental film era. One of them was a woman experimental filmmaker, Marry Ellen Bute. She produced films from 1934 to 1959 in collobration with Joseph Schillinger who theorized music according to mathematical structures that is also subordinated with contemporary premises of sound or data visualization through some calculations. All her abstractions were derived from mechanical and analogue instruments, like bracelets or cellophane or sparkler… etc. And most of her films were premiered in music halls.

Also an incredible animation by Marry EllenBute and Norman McLaren; Spook Sport in 1940

Norman McLaren is another motion artists who paints directly on film.

One of the extracts below is, psychedelic ‘gate’ of 2001:Space Odyssey’s ‘Star Gate’ sequence under fx of Douglas Trumbul. In parallel aspects can be found with John Whitney’s motion-pic film Catalogue which is popular in the psychedelic  area. The sequence which was supervised by Douglas Trumbull, had based on split-scan techniques which was  actually developed by John Whitney. There were several rumour or trivias about the origin of the split-scan or the monolith issue which stars as an metaphoric alien-figure at  Space Odyssey.

‘Star Gate’ can be taken as visualization of  possible algorithms of light  on a  space; or we can possibly say that it is virtual trip of man on a (presumed) embodied interface (with a transportation machine the ’embodiment’ is supplied but with the visualization of lights; this representation becomes suddenly abstract) Or contrary; we might suggest that ,it is disembodiment of the supposed spaces that takes on a virtual level. It is the man’s penetration to alternative spaces in targeting the leak of realities.

Premier in 1968, 2001: A Space Odyssey presents an anti-utopic evolution of a man, that can also be read as the evolution of the visualization process. The first part of the film, during 10 minutes was all black-out with a score. Somehow this black scene conveys the blank tabula of the visual interface that has going to be fulfilled and evolved in different mediums, that which a black monolith is a kind of related with the frame format of film.

These are the HAL’s visualization of the space and their route.

Avedon was one of the most prominent fashion photographers,emerged in 1940s with Irving Penn. He was one of  the students of Design Laboratory workshop held by Alexey Brodovitch, during 1930s. This workshop had proceeded under the influence of Bauhaus school to evoke the individual style in search of contemporary tendencies. Avedon’s active and almost sequential shots with deviant exposition had been well got along with Brodovitch’s harsh and extraordinary layouts.

Richard Avedon’s use of white space and cropped images referred to Brodovich’s layouts, shifted the use of white (or neutral) background as his signature both his portaits and most of fashion shots. With a minimalistic space references, Avedon put model forward any kind of poses or narrative. Rejecting the emotional or narrative orientations of composition, he stratisfied his ‘pure’ portraits under the harsh lights of studio rather than natural light of outdoors in which neutralize the subjects and objects. His style might imply a kind of alienation of his subjects from the any manupaltion but himself. Somehow he is cutting his models away, leaving them all alone by the ‘symbolic’ of themselves, whom exposing all narrative of artifacts within gestures, -within move-; in action.

Beyond exposing “Diary of a Century” ( in Henri Lartigue’s terms), his fashion shots depict America’s iconographic tendencies, stylistic elements of the last half century. His approach to models in fashion photographs (actually towards every person he has interacted in his photography ‘sessions’), denotes  liberated mood among angled, framed and strict geometric forms in a very sterile representations. Hence that can evoke women’s liberation movement and their exposition themselves in the fashion. In fashion photography, Avedon liberated models to leave them in motion in a free way rather than  considering them as a stable mannequis that only function as a clothe-hanger. His photograhic approach as depicting the subject, and his geometric clean style- that can be taken as ‘streamlined’-, correspond Art Deco style. Especially in early years of Art Deco, women has begun to set themselves free from the traditional and social presssures. The style was, in-between; eclectic; West has appropriated so many stylistic forms from East,  in-between: in recognition of genders; women has positioned themselves in geometrical and sharp forms in men’s style.


In the magazine, Harper’s Bazaar,Avedon’s photographs was layed out in Alexey Brodovitch’s editorial pages. 1982

from hussein chalayan (contextually, some impressions from eclecticism)

The title sequence directs the audience in a way that  to create an overall expectation about the film. Art of the title including all publications about film, poster, DVD design and its cover, and the title sequence generate narrational expectation about the film beyond the progress of  narrative.  Narrational choices are all condensed in title sequence. Furthermore, even title sequence include some contrast elements with the narrative, it always reveals the references with  all the stylistic tendencies in the mentioned time period of the film. the subject matter or the ‘zeitgeist’ can have the determinative way in title design. Title sequence might give an extra-diegetic information about the stylistic drives in engage with the art movements in the history.Therefore title sequence engenders in-between position of graphic design and filmmaking.

Saul Bass is the striking designer of the title sequences. He was closely in touch with Bauhaus School with Laszlo-Moholy Nagy and Constructivist.  “The Man With Golden Arm” is one of the title works of him. It is an animated title design with minimalistic units in terms of repetation of the elements and simplicity while it evokes somehow suprematist compositions (the objects seem as if they floating in the void). But in the end of the title metamorphosing the rectangular unit to the ‘arm’ creates a sense of joke, that all abstraction strengthened with the forms suddenly break down turns into a subject. The form of the mentioned ‘arm’  can stylisticly be associated with Dada’s cut-out subjects.

Here is Hitchcock’s ‘Anatomy of a Murder” again by Saul Bass. The subject, man, is animated as depicting in the cut-out process as directly referring the process of anatomy which the fragmented layers of body is examined.

And the very famous one; “North by Northwest”. The top view of one of the skyscrapers of US become the back ground for the title, thus evoking the engagements with International Style. Besidesit can be considered as also constructivist installment of the elements in design.

Eclcticism can be reversely read  in regarding  Nobuyoshi Araki’s series. Even the contextual reflections has been derived from traditional and contemporary Japaneese cults and myths (including Japaneese urban scene); his aesthetical choice of snapshots, sometimes refer to Western contemporary tendencies in photographic expressions. That’s why, when focusing on Araki’s stylistic journey, the orthodox means of eclecticism is reverted.And this reversal has been reflected to the Japaneese language of flowers, which is influenced by the Victorian Age’s visual code system of flowers,.This message system has functioned as a silent contradiction implying some sexual codes among the society.

Nobuyoshi Araki’s obsession with flower kinbaku “the beauty of tight binding” reveals in his 2008 project at Michael Hoppen Gallery .When to consider the subliminal, erotic connotations of both depicting and sending flowers  it makes sense in the expression of Araki’s association of ‘kinbaku’  within the fantastic photos of  hana (flower). In the hand made diptych of kinbaku and hana, woman body hence the unifying space and tie -contextually-. In the process of his photographic diptychs, the taping /junction of two photos is consciously left within its transparency of the errors.In a way, leaving the traces of the rope tying process, he is self- reflexive. He avoided the masterity ; the perfection ; while the art of  kinbaku asserts the ultimate perfection. In this sense,  ‘Hana-kinbaku’ can be considered as the metonymyc references -to testimonial aspect of  ‘bandaging’  flower within the woman- ,than to be taken as its literal art forms. The resulting work, the tied woman on the stills of flowers somehow evokes the  ‘dying’ cluster of flowers that had deeply impressed Araki’s initial passion of photographic flowers. The in-between state of plucked flowers can be taken as naturmorts in a ‘sentimental’ tendency ( See ‘Sentimental Journey’ ). Yet, this state of in-between pulse conveys  the juxtaposition of death and life in his binary or couple visuals as we can also follow this contradictory and supplementary concepts held in his series  “Self.Life.Death”

As looking out  on the illustrations of old encyclopedias, striked me has the teasing art of Martin Schmidt. His emphasis in collages and illustratios is on taxonomies – of human art, mechanics, species of animals and plants – taken in depth in encyclopedias. He cites that he uses prints from old German encyclopedias in his collages. With his collages he creates hybrid species among the things that cannot be ranged in taxonomic terms. Just like the structure of encyclopedia where many articles about many irrelevant subjects corresponds on the same space( -the pages of the encyclopedia-), Martin Schmidts’ collages becomes ground for such confrontation. Somehow he reminds me a naive but grotesque visualization of Borges’s Chineese encyclopedia where things cannot come together in normal orders, they can be expressed in non-congeneric spaces (see,heterotopias).He creates naughty obliqueness -atopia- of encyclopedic illustration that ought to ‘enlight’ the reader. He adds ‘serious’ annotative notes under his collages that  maintaines the nostalgia of encyclopedic illustrations that supposed to inform the reader.So there can be link of sense between the process and finished work in terms of context of material.  I came across the information about him on this website:

Encyclopedias are at the center of the world’s ‘factual’ and common knowledge in alphabetical order .The cumulation of existing knowledge is organized through the articles and in purpose of spreading human episteme in related subject or in time-period.The existing articles, indexes in an encyclopedia refers to reality. No doubt remains when you “look it up” as quoted in the advertisement below; and people are comforted with tenderness of ‘undoubted reality’ which can now be reached in any circumstances, even in their own, peaceful living-room.

“Tlön is surely a labyrinth, but it is a labyrinth devised by men, a labyrinth destined to be deciphered by men.”


But, sometimes, this warm-reality shatters ; as in the Borges’ 1947 short fiction, “Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius”.  This happens even in their ‘sweet’ living room where the bookshelves are covered with  ‘undoubtedly reliable’ Encyclopedia Britannica. In the story, Borges and his friend ,Bioy Caseres, has come up with split in reality, with the alternative universe of Tlön in the obscure, piratical edition of the encyclopedia in the pages of 917 and 921.  In the search of evidences of this imaginary land – from the reality’s point of view – he confronts with the Tlön encyclopedia that which, its hypothetical language protocol is the stem of every philosophical and literary act. The maze of Tlön which is claimed to be built up by humans, can be compared with simulacra; thus the fiction of Tlön, in the story, yet begins to contain borders, undistinguishable from the reality of the world.

All the effort of mankind in disintegrating, organizing the all episteme in correspondance with the notion of encyclopedias. Actually on the surface, it points out the postmodernist ‘rearranging of contemporary tools’  in a way. Beyond the Enlightenment’s heritage of  educational purpose, encyclopedias sum-up, collect and order the “commonly accepted” and “generally acknowledged” with obsession. In the age of postmodernism, in which the effort of collecting, arranging and remaking from already-existing or ready-made materials is nearly the most significant act just like the “labyrinths devised by men”. The material, the knowledge of encyclopedias are already digested, the terrains that maps signified is passed over, the domination of the represented ‘real’ is no more. There came a passage to hybridize the signifiers in the loss of control and significance of encyclopedic authors, publishers, painters, cartographers or even the land itself which is represented by any graphical or verbal notation. The ‘leak’ in reality after the universe of Tlön has again taken its residence. What has striked me is Brian Dettmer. His art stems from , pre-existing materials consisting of books, encyclopedias, maps, tape cassettes that bear  information of ” the world”. He performs autopsy to these ‘dead’ materials, and they preserve their links with the information, of which they once consisted. He redifines the materials, regarding them as the process itself; they are not finished objects within their forms; they are the remains of the process. Anyway I want to post you a video:

An aural human antomy of Brian Dettmer; consistingof old tapes:

A biologic reference of Brian Dettmer;

The first common association of rubber stamps was, for me, the dark uniformal atmosphere of governmental offices;that every ‘mobile’ or documented sheet of paper has to be labelled, dated, ‘sign’ed in order to be confirmed; and paper and rubber stamps is the main material for this certification. However, the notion of standardized connotations of rubber stamp has taken to the concept of ready mades (that can be reproduced over and over again) and its one of the masters to his art is Kurt Scwitters.Dada has revealed itself with  direct and straight-forward  ‘labelled’ art works exhibiting the artist ‘signature’. A rubber stamp is an understandible tool or medium in Dada’s exhibistionist expression.It publishes out the direct intention of the artist with the marked signs, in provacative manner that seals, marks apperantly.

Another artist who uses (rubber) stamp as a tool in artworks is Fluxus artist; Ken Friedman.Fluxus group was into the stamps especially in their ‘Fluxpost’ project.And this work is a sample from Ken Friedman, the logo was designed by Wolfgang Feelisch.

Fluxboxes was very common among those artist and the stamp has become a communicative symbol.

From Dave Zack, a postcard

Hand-carved rubber stamps of Alan Turner


Also an intersting works of rubber stamp under the nickname “ART NAHPRO” on Flicker.Here is the link